CMAS救援潜水员大纲

CMAS Rescue Diver

Standard

CMAS Rescue Standard

Table of content

Page

Section A: Introduction 3

Section B: Definitions 4

Section C: CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme 7

2

CMAS Rescue Standard

Section A

Introduction

1. Scope and purpose

1.1 The CMAS International Diver Certification System only provides for one grade of CMAS Rescue

Diver.

1.2 The CMAS Rescue Diver Training Standard specifies the following:

1.2.1 The competencies that a participant has to have achieved in order for a CMAS Instructor

to award the CMAS Rescue Diver certification to the participant indicating that he

has been assessed and has shown that he has met or exceeded the minimum

requirements for certification as a CMAS Rescue Diver;

1.2.2 The specific conditions under which training has to be provided; and

1.2.3 The minimum training programme content requirements for instruction leading to the

CMAS Rescue Diver certification.

1.3 The requirements of this CMAS Standard are meant to be comprehensive, but general in

nature. That is, the standard presents all the required subject areas essential for CMAS

Rescue Diver certification, but it does not give a detailed listing of the skills and information

encompassed by each area.

1.4 Although the information categories are outlined in what may appear to be a logical

sequence, the outline shall not be viewed as a lesson plan. That means that the order in

which the information is presented in this standard, while logical as a framework for the basic

requirements of the specific standard, does not necessarily define the sequence of a class

lesson plan. Similarly, the requirements presented in this standard do not indicate the

emphasis that should be placed upon a particular subject area, or the manner in which

subjects are to be taught. Rather, course outlines, lesson plans, and other training aids

prepared by CMAS Federations responsible for CMAS Rescue Diver training shall be used

as guidelines for the sequencing and emphasis of course content requirements presented in

these standards. Decisions as to the sequencing and the emphasis of subject matter are at

the discretion of the CMAS Instructor within the requirements of the CMAS Instructor's

Federation, to be made within the context of environmental factors, participant

characteristics, and other relevant considerations.

1.5 This standard represents the minimum standard, which means that subject matter and diving

skills may be added by CMAS Federations, CDC’s to suit the local conditions in a specific

area.

1.6 This CMAS Standard is applicable to all CMAS Federations and CDC’s and CMAS Instructors

presenting training on behalf of a Federation or a CDC.

3

CMAS Rescue Standard

Section B

Definitions

1.1 In these Standards, unless the context indicates otherwise –

1.1.1 “Assessment of a diving casualty” shall mean the primary and secondary assessment of the diving

casualty.

1.1.2 “Assisted ascent” shall include the controlled buoyant lifting technique from behind, the controlled

buoyant lifting technique from the front and the tethered buoyant lifting technique.

1.1.3 “CDC” shall mean a CMAS Diving Centre that is registered with the CMAS International Technical

Committee and that is in good standing with CMAS International.

1.1.4 “Certification” shall mean a CMAS Certification Card ("C-Card") documenting that a student has

completed all requirements of a specific CMAS Diver Training Programme. This verification is

issued by either CMAS International or the National Federation upon receipt of an instructor's

written confirmation of satisfactory completion of all course requirements by the participant, as

documented in the participant's Personal Log Book/Training Record.

1.1.5 “CMAS Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified as a CMAS Three Star

Diver and who is sanctioned by CMAS International and/or his National Federation to lead guided

and organised open water dives and to assist a CMAS Instructor during confined and open water

training.

1.1.6 “CMAS National Federation” shall mean a National Federation that is a member of the CMAS

International Technical Committee and that is in good standing with CMAS International.

1.1.7 “CMAS Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and sanctioned by CMAS

International and/or his National Federation to teach open water SCUBA diving and to authorize

the issuance of CMAS Diver certification.

1.1.8 “Competencies” shall mean a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes performed to a

specific standard under specific conditions.

1.1.9 “Confined water” shall mean a swimming pool with a depth appropriate to the activity or any

body of water that offers conditions similar to those of a swimming pool with regard to visibility,

depth, water movement and access.

1.1.10 “CPR” shall mean cardio pulmonary resuscitation.

1.1.11 “Decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that requires a mandatory in-water

decompression stop.

1.1.12 “Emergency-signalling device” shall mean a device suitable for the venue in which open water

diving is performed which can be used to attract the attention of the surface party or a search

party if the diver or dive group become separated from the dive boat or surface party such as a

BC integrated emergency horn, signalling mirror, safety sausage etc. or during any other

4

CMAS Rescue Standard

emergency.

1.1.13 “Instructional Assistant” shall mean a CMAS One Star Instructor or a CMAS Dive Leader.

1.1.14 “Knowledge” shall mean the specific information required for the participant to develop the skills

and attitudes for effective accomplishment of diving tasks/duties.

1.1.15 “Minimum instructional diving system” shall mean the equipment required to be worn by the

CMAS Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the skills prescribed for both

the confined and open water sections of the Rescue Diver Training Programme. This equipment

includes, as a minimum, the following:

- mask

- snorkel

- fins

- exposure suit (if appropriate)

- quick release weighting system

- cylinder and valve

- cylinder-support system

- buoyancy control device with low-pressure inflator system

- regulator

- alternate air source (could range from a simple octopus system to a duplicate breathing

system with a separate breathing gas system)

- submersible pressure gauge

- timing device

- depth gauge

- cutting device (if not prohibited by legislation)

- emergency signalling device (acoustical, optical)

1.1.16 “Neurological examination” shall mean the structured examination of a diving casualty’s central

nervous system, soon after the occurrence of a diving accident, in order to provide the physician

with valuable information to assist with the treatment of the diving casualty.

1.1.17 “No-decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that does not require a mandatory in-water

decompression stop.

1.1.18 “Open water” shall mean any body of water significantly larger than a swimming pool offering

conditions typical of a natural body of water encountered in the region.

1.1.19 “Open water training dive/exercise” shall mean a supervised, open water SCUBA training

experience to fulfil the certification requirements of a CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme

and shall, as a minimum consist of the following:

- a briefing

- preparation to dive

- pre-dive checks

- an appropriate method of entry into the water

- descent procedures

- underwater activity of at least 15 minutes at depths between 5 and 20 metres

- an appropriate method of exit from the water

- a debriefing

- post dive procedures including equipment care

- recording (logging) the dive in student's Personal Log Book.

5

CMAS Rescue Standard

1.1.20 “Participant” shall mean an individual that complies with the prerequisites for participation in any

of CMAS Diver Training Programmes and who has formally enrolled on such a training programme

presented by a CMAS Instructor. Synonyms for the word “participant” are “student”, “candidate” or

“learner”.

1.1.21 “Risk assessment” shall mean the identification of hazards and who may be harmed by them.

1.1.22 “Safety swimmer” shall mean a certified diver who holds at least a CMAS Rescue Diver

certification who is equipped in snorkelling equipment and who can come to the assistance of a

participant during any surface rescue training dive/exercise.

1.1.23 “SCUBA” shall mean self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

1.1.24 “Skill” shall mean an ability, learned and acquired through training, to perform actions that

achieve a specific desired outcome.

1.1.25 “Supervision” as it relates to confined and open water training shall mean the prescribed level of

supervision required by either the CMAS Instructor or CMAS Dive Leader in order to ensure the

safety of the diving activity. The level of supervision required is prescribed as either direct or indirect

supervision, which is defined as follows:

- “Direct supervision” shall mean visual observation and evaluation of student skill

performance and student diving activities by a CMAS Instructor or CMAS Dive Leader. Direct

supervision requires personal observation and evaluation of the performance of the skills

required for certification. During underwater skill performance and evaluation, direct

supervision requires the student to be accompanied underwater.

- “Indirect supervision” shall mean the overall control, general observation, evaluation, and

direction of student skill performance and student diving activities. The Instructor must be

personally present at the training site and be prepared to come to the aid of a student.

6

CMAS Rescue Standard

Section C

CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme

1. Purpose

1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide the training requirements for instruction leading to the

CMAS Rescue Diver certificate.

2. Aim and objectives

2.1 This training programme aims at developing the rescue skills of certified CMAS divers which will

enable them to have a better understanding of the common causes of diving emergencies, how to

avoid diving incidents/accidents, how to assist and/or rescue a diver during an emergency and how to

manage a diving incident/accident in an effective and efficient manner.

2.2 The specific objectives of the programme are the following:

2.2.1 To provide the participant with an overview of the training programme and to introduce the

participant to the CMAS as well as the CMAS International Diver Certification System;

2.2.2 To develop the participant’s knowledge of the common causes of diver stress and diving

emergencies;

2.2.3 To develop the participant’s ability to more readily recognise a diving emergency or a diver in

need of assistance;

2.2.4 To develop the participant’s knowledge of rescue procedures and the treatment of diving injuries;

2.2.5 To introduce the participant to the value and use of first aid supplies and dive rescue equipment;

2.2.6 To introduce the participant to the basic principles of rescue management;

2.2.7 To introduce the participant to the basic principles of rescuer health and safety;

2.2.8 To introduce the participant to further career development opportunities;

2.2.9 To develop the participant’s rescue skills with regard to a number of prescribed essential rescue

skills that are utilised on land or in the “dry”.

2.2.10 To develop the participant’s rescue skills with regard to a number of prescribed essential rescue

skills, in the safety of the confined water environment, which will enable the participant to safely

utilise these skills in the open water section of the training programme; and

2.2.11 To develop the participant’s open water rescue skills by providing the participant with the

opportunity to participate and demonstrate his skills and experience during a least two (2) open

water rescue training dives/exercises.

3. Classification

3.1 The CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme is classified as an intermediate level speciality diver

training programme.

4. Competencies of a certified CMAS Rescue Diver

4.1 A CMAS Rescue Diver shall be trained such that when assessed in accordance with Clause

13 of this standard, he shall be deemed to have sufficient knowledge, skill and experience to

avoid diving emergencies, to recognise the common causes of diving emergencies, to lend

assistance to another diver in need, to act appropriately during a diving emergency and to

7

CMAS Rescue Standard

manage a diving incident/accident in an effective and efficient manner.

4.2 A CMAS Rescue Diver is qualified to help prevent a diving emergency and, if necessary, to

perform a rescue, provide basic life support and basic first aid treatment to a diving casualty

and/or manage a diving incident/accident in an effective and efficient manner until such time that

the diving casualty can be handed over to the Emergency Medical Services by using a variety of

rescue techniques and resources.

4.3 The parameters within which the CMAS Rescue Diver is qualified to dive are those applicable to

the other diver training certifications he already holds, unless he is accompanied by a CMAS

Instructor on any open water dive.

4.4 Where further instruction is required this can only be provided by a suitably qualified CMAS

Instructor.

4.5 If accompanied by a CMAS Instructor, the certified CMAS Rescue Diver may gain

progressive experience beyond these parameters and develop competency in managing

more challenging diving conditions (e.g. increased depth and current, reduced visibility,

extreme temperatures) designed to lead to higher qualifications.

5. Target group

5.1 This training programme is designed for certified CMAS Divers who enjoy normal health, are

reasonably fit, have a reasonable swimming ability and who have the desire to upgrade their existing

diver rescue knowledge and skills.

6. Prerequisites for training

6.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that the participant fulfils the following prerequisites to

participate in this training programme:

6.1.1 Age

6.1.1.1 The participant shall be at least fifteen (15) years of age; there is no upper limit.

6.1.2 Previous SCUBA diving certification or experience

6.1.2.1 In order to enrol on the CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme, the participant shall

submit proof of the following to the CMAS Instructor:

6.1.2.1.1 Diving certifications

6.1.2.1.1.1 CMAS One Star Diver Training Programme or equivalent

6.1.2.1.1.2 CMAS Oxygen Administration Training Programme or equivalent (where not

prohibited by law)

6.1.2.1.2 Other certification

6.1.2.1.2.1 Proof of a valid First -Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) certificate (i.e.

the term of validity of the certificate must be valid on the date of certification as a

CMAS Rescue Diver).

8

CMAS Rescue Standard

6.1.2.1.3 Diving experience

6.1.2.2 The participant shall submit proof of at least twenty (20) logged open water dives.

6.1.3 Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation

6.1.3.1 The participant shall effectively demonstrate his basic watermanship ability by performing, to a

CMAS Instructor, the following watermanship evaluation:

6.1.3.1.1 A continuous two-hundred (200) meter surface distance swim; and

6.1.3.1.2 A ten (10) minute survival swim/float without the use of mask, fins, snorkel or with

any other swimming aids.

6.1.4 Medical History/Statement

6.1.4.1 The participant shall complete the medical history/statement form required by the CMAS

Federation prior to participating in any in-water activities. Participants shall comply with all

stipulations thereon before continuing with any in-water training. It is required that participants

with out-of-the-ordinary medical histories be approved, without conditions or restrictions, as

medically fit for diving by a licensed medical practitioner prior to engaging in in-water activities. In

no event shall medical approval be accepted when the person signing the approval is the

participating individual.

6.1.5 Acknowledgment and Assumption of Risk

6.1.5.1 Participants of this training programme shall be informed of the inherent risks of SCUBA diving in

any in-water activities.

6.1.5.2 Parental or legal guardian signature is required on the appropriate form(s) when the

applicant is a minor.

7. Requirements for certification

7.1 In order to be certified as a CMAS Rescue Diver, the student shall:

7.1.1 Comply with all the prerequisites for participation in the training programme as prescribed

by Clause 6 of this Standard;

7.1.2 Successfully complete the theoretical assessment as provided for in Clause 13.1 of this

Standard;

7.1.3 Successfully complete the practical knowledge application assessment as provided for in

Clause 13.2 of this Standard;

7.1.4 Successfully complete the confined water assessment as provided for in Clause 13.3 of

this Standard; and

7.1.5 Successfully complete the open water assessment as provided for in Clause 13.4 of this

Standard.

7.2 The CMAS Instructor shall have the right to withhold the participant’s certification, if in the

opinion of the CMAS Instructor, the participant has not performed satisfactorily in any one or

more of the requirements for certification as described in Clause 7.1 of this Standard.

9

CMAS Rescue Standard

8. Scope of the training programme

8.1 Content

8.1.1 In order to accomplish the aim and objectives of the CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme as

provided for in Clause 2 of this Standard, the training programme shall consist of the following

four (4) sections:

8.1.1.1 A Theoretical Section, which concentrates on certain rescue diving knowledge requirements as

provided for in Clause 9 of this Standard;

8.1.1.2 A Practical Knowledge Application Section, which concentrates on the development of

practical rescue skills on land as provided for in Clause 10.1.

8.1.1.3 A Confined Water Section, which concentrates on the revision of certain prescribed entry level

diving skills as well as the development of the prescribed essential rescue skills, in the safety of

the confined water environment, as provided for in Clause 10.2 of this Standard, in order to

ensure that the participant can safely participate in the Open Water Section of the training

programme; and

8.1.1.4 An Open Water Section, which consists of the completion of at least two (2) supervised open

water rescue dives/exercises where the participant will be required to demonstrate the mastery of

the rescue skills provided for in Clause 10.3 of this Standard.

8.2 Limitations of the CMAS Rescue D iver certification

8.2.1 The CMAS Rescue Diver is only certified to dive within the limits of his other diving certifications

and in diving conditions and diving areas that are similar, equal or better to those in which training

was received.

8.2.2 If diving conditions and the diving area is significantly different from those previously experienced,

a CMAS Rescue Diver requires an appropriate orientation from a CMAS Instructor or CMAS Dive

Leader before participating in such open water diving activity.

8.2.3 The following activities are beyond the level of competency of a certified CMAS Rescue Diver:

8.2.3.1 Any rescue technique or similar activity that is beyond the scope of this training programme and

that is reserved for appropriately trained members of the Emergency Medical Services;

8.2.3.2 Any medical intervention or similar activity that is beyond the scope of this training programme and

that is reserved for appropriately trained and certified members of the Emergency Medical

Services;

8.2.3.3 Any medical intervention or similar activity that is beyond the scope of this training programme that

is reserved for an appropriately trained and certified medical physician; and

8.2.3.4 Any rescue, basic life support, first aid technique or similar activity that is prohibited by law.

10

CMAS Rescue Standard

9. Required theoretical knowledge

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 The following information shall be made available to the participant before or during the first class

meeting.

9.1.1.1 The aim and objectives of the CMAS Rescue Diver Training Programme (see Clause 2 of this

Standard).

9.1.1.2 The competencies of the certified CMAS Rescue Diver (see Clause 4 of this Standard).

9.1.1.3 The prerequisites for participation in the training programme (see Clause 6 of this Standard).

9.1.1.4 The class requirements, which shall include the following:

9.1.1.4.1 The costs of participating in the training programme;

9.1.1.4.2 Medical suitability to dive as well as the importance of appropriate regular SCUBA diving

medical examinations;

9.1.1.4.3 Insurance options/requirements in accordance with national regulations (if applicable); and

9.1.1.4.4 Contractual agreement, including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and

termination of the contract.

9.1.1.5 The scope of the training programme, which includes the following:

9.1.1.5.1 Content (see Clause 8.1 of this Standard); and

9.1.1.5.2 Limitations of eventual qualification (see Clause 8.2 of this Standard)

9.1.1.6 The diving related legislation and/or legal requirements applicable to the student in the country

where the training programme is presented.

9.1.1.7 The specific equipment requirements of the participant during the training programme.

9.1.1.8 The local environmental considerations that will have an impact on the participant and/or the

presentation of the diver training programme.

9.1.1.9 The means and methods of assessment of the participant’s knowledge and skills (see Clause 13

of this Standard).

9.1.1.10 The requirements for certification/successful completion of the training programme (see

Clause 7 of this Standard).

9.1.1.11 The specific training programme procedures and schedule.

9.1.1.12The fact that records shall be kept of the participant’s personal data and that these records may be

passed on to the CMAS Federation and/or CMAS International. The personal data that the CMAS

instructor is supposed to obtain from the participant and keep in safe-keeping for a period of at

least five (5) years shall include the following:

9.1.1.12.1 Name, address and date of birth

9.1.1.12.2 Medical certification

11

CMAS Rescue Standard

9.1.1.12.3 Any previous training/certification, experience

9.1.1.12.4 The progress of the student

9.1.1.12.5 Records of certification once the training has been completed

9.1.1.13 The following information about the CMAS shall be made available to the participant

during the first class meeting.

9.1.1.13.1 The CMAS as an international body for the management of underwater sport

9.1.1.13.2 The relationship between the School/Club/Federation and the CMAS

9.1.1.13.3 The CMAS International Divers Certification System

9.1.1.13.4 The position of the CMAS One Star Diver Training Programme in the CMAS International

Diver Certification System

9.2 Common causes of diver stress and diving emergencies

9.2.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the common causes of diver

stress and diving emergencies, including the following:

9.2.1.1 Equipment related problems (Including overweighting and when it’s appropriate to ditch the

weighting system)

9.2.1.2 Temperature Related Problems

9.2.1.2.1 Heat exhaustion

9.2.1.2.2 Heat Stroke

9.2.1.2.3 Shock

9.2.1.2.4 Hypothermia (including re-warming procedures)

9.2.1.3 Overexertion

9.2.1.4 Panic

9.2.1.5 Pressure-related injuries

9.2.1.5.1 Decompression sickness

9.2.1.5.2 Arterial gas embolism

9.2.1.5.3 Other lung overexpansion injuries

9.2.1.6 Near drowning and drowning

9.2.1.7 Aquatic life

9.2.1.8 Environmental conditions

9.3 Identifying a dive emergency or diver in need

9.3.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the identification of a dive

emergency or a diver in need, both on the surface and underwater, including the following:

9.3.1.1 Recognizing signs of stress

9.3.1.1.1 Physical stress

9.3.1.1.2 Psychological stress

12

CMAS Rescue Standard

9.3.1.1.3 Perceptual narrowing

9.3.1.2 Recognizing characteristics of a tired diver

9.3.1.3 Recognizing characteristics of a panicked diver

9.4 Dive rescue procedures and treatment of injuries

9.4.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning dive rescue procedures as well

as the treatment of diving injuries, including the following:

9.4.1.1 Self rescue techniques

9.4.1.2 First Aid for common Aquatic Life injuries

9.4.1.3 Non-swimming assists/rescues

9.4.1.4 Critical Incident Stress

9.4.1.5 First aid for pressure-related injuries

9.4.1.5.1 Decompression sickness

9.4.1.5.2 Arterial gas embolism

9.4.1.5.3 Other lung overexpansion injuries

9.4.1.6 Near-drowning, drowning and treatment

9.4.1.7 Assisting a responsive diver at the surface and underwater

9.4.1.8 Surfacing an unresponsive diver

9.4.1.9 Egress with a responsive and unresponsive diver

9.4.1.10 Equipment removal considerations

9.4.1.11 In-water rescue breathing techniques for the non-breathing diver

9.4.1.12 Missing Diver procedures and considerations, including search patterns.

9.5 First aid supplies and dive rescue equipment

9.5.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge of the value and use of first aid supplies

and dive rescue equipment, including the following:

9.5.1.1 First Aid kit

9.5.1.2 Pocket mask/barrier devices

9.5.1.3 Emergency Oxygen

9.5.1.3.1 Benefits to the diver

9.5.1.3.2 Various oxygen delivery systems

13

CMAS Rescue Standard

9.5.1.3.3 Legality and oxygen use risks

9.5.1.4 Automated External Defibrillator (not compulsory and if not prohibited by law)

9.5.1.5 Purpose and use of visual and audible signaling devices.

9.5.1.6 Special Equipment

9.6 Rescue management

9.6.1 Site safety assessment

9.6.2 Scene management (including rescue team management)

9.6.3 Neurological examination procedures

9.6.4 Evacuation and professional treatment

9.6.4.1 Emergency Medical Services

9.6.4.2 Hyperbaric chamber--value to the victim of a dive accident

9.6.5 Written Emergency Action Plan preparation. Participants must prepare an Emergency Action

Plan, including steps of emergency management for a dive site identified by the CMAS Instructor

9.6.6 Elements of a written report of an incident

9.6.7 Fact recording

9.6.8 Equipment retention following an incident

9.7 Rescuer health and safety

9.7.1 Risks to the rescuer

9.7.2 Physical conditioning

9.7.3 The need for keeping your rescue and emergency care skills up-to-date

9.8 Career development

9.8.1 The participant shall be informed of the following:

9.8.1.1 The diving opportunities open to the participant as a certified CMAS Rescue Diver

9.8.1.2 The different CMAS Diver Training Programmes that can be attended as a certified

CMAS Rescue Diver.

10. Required rescue skills

10.1 Practical Knowledge Application Section

10.1.1 The participant shall master the following skills on land:

14

CMAS Rescue Standard

10.1.1.1 Hazard identification

10.1.1.2 Rescue breathing and CPR

10.1.1.3 Use of a pocket mask/barrier devices

10.1.1.4 Oxygen administration techniques (where not prohibited by law)

10.1.1.5 Automated External Defibrillator (not compulsory and where not prohibited by

Law)

10.1.1.6 Use of the first aid kit and other specialized equipment to treat diving injuries

10.1.1.7 Assessment of a diving casualty

10.1.1.8 Performing a neurological examination

10.1.1.9 Completion of relevant accident reporting slates/documentation

10.1.1.10 Summoning the Emergency Medical Services by telephone/radio

10.2 Confined water skills

10.2.1 The participant shall demonstrate and be assessed with regard to the following skills,

whilst using all the equipment he intends to use in the open water section of the training

programme, in order to determine whether he requires any remedial training before

continuing with the teaching of the rescue skills listed in Clause 10.2.2:

10.2.1.1 Pre-dive checks

10.2.1.2 Entry techniques

10.2.1.3 Regulator removal and replacement

10.2.1.4 Mask clearing

10.2.1.5 Buoyancy control

10.2.1.6 Exit techniques

10.2.2 The participant shall master the following rescue skills in confined water before that skill

is performed in open water:

10.2.2.1 Use of both visual and audible signaling devices

10.2.2.2 Cramp release

10.2.2.3 Establishing buoyancy at the surface (self and for another diver)

10.2.2.4 Airway control

10.2.2.5 Supplying air to a diver simulating an out-of-air emergency (i.e. alternate air source use)

10.2.2.6 Overcoming vertigo

10.2.2.7 Responding correctly to a tired diver at the surface and underwater

10.2.2.8 Responding correctly to a panicked diver at the surface and underwater

10.2.2.9 Non-swimming assists (e.g. with a throwing bag and rope)

10.2.2.10 Water entry when responding to an emergency

10.2.2.11 Swimming assists

10.2.2.12 Surfacing an unconscious/incapacitated diver by at least three (3) different techniques

10.2.2.13 At least two methods of diver tows

10.2.2.14 Egresses (both responsive and unresponsive diver)

10.2.2.15 Responding to a diver simulating overexertion

10.2.2.16 Conducting underwater search patterns (if the confined water environment is

suitable to the teaching of these skills)

10.3 Open water skills

10.3.1 The participant shall be able to demonstrate the following skills in the open water

environment:

15

CMAS Rescue Standard

10.3.1.1 Cramp release

10.3.1.2 Establishing buoyancy at the surface (self and for another diver)

10.3.1.3 Airway control

10.3.1.4 Supplying air to a diver simulating an out-of-air emergency (i.e. alternate air source use)

10.3.1.5 Overcoming vertigo

10.3.1.6 Responding correctly to a tired diver at the surface and underwater

10.3.1.7 Responding correctly to a panicked diver at the surface and underwater

10.3.1.8 Non-swimming assists

10.3.1.9 Water entry when responding to an emergency

10.3.1.10 Swimming assists

10.3.1.11 Surfacing an unconscious/incapacitated diver by at least three (3) different techniques

10.3.1.12 At least two methods of diver tows

10.3.1.13 Egresses (both responsive and unresponsive diver)

10.3.1.14 Responding to a diver simulating overexertion

10.3.1.15 Conducting at least one (1) underwater search pattern

11.Theoretical training parameters

11.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that theoretical training is conducted in an

environment that is free from significant distractions to learning, such as a dedicated

classroom. Furthermore, the training venue shall provide participants with sufficient

working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing surfaces, reference materials, computer,

visual or audio materials) to ensure that participants are able to understand the information

being presented.

11.2 Each participant shall be provided with relevant training material, in either printed or

electronic format, that will assist him in mastering the required theoretical concepts and

principles.

12. Practical training parameters

12.1 Risk assessment

12.1.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each

confined and open water dive, and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all risks are

controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be considered as

part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:

12.1.1.1 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)

12.1.1.2 depth

12.1.1.3 underwater visibility

12.1.1.4 pollution

12.1.1.5 entry/exit methods

12.1.1.6 restricted zones

12.1.1.7 suitability of the site for the planned activities

12.1.1.8 emergency action plan

12.2 The CMAS Instructor shall have the right to prevent any participant from taking part in

the activity if following a risk assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the

participant and/or of the other participants.

16

CMAS Rescue Standard

12.3 Emergency equipment and procedures

12.3.1 Emergency equipment

12.3.1.1For all locations where confined or open water activities take place the CMAS Instructor

shall ensure the availability of the following:

12.3.1.1.1 A first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities;

12.3.1.1.2 An emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 litres/min of

pure oxygen for at least 20 minutes; and

12.3.1.1.3 A communication system suitable for alerting the Emergency Medical Services.

12.3.2 Emergency procedures

12.3.2.1 The CMAS Instructor shall ensure that, at each dive site where confined or open

water diving activities take place, a documented emergency plan comprising at least the

following information is available:

12.3.2.1.1 Procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation;

12.3.2.1.2 Procedures for the use of the emergency oxygen supply; and

12.3.2.1.3 Information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the

availability of the nearest hyperbaric recompression chamber).

12.4 Equipment

12.4.1 The minimum equipment to be worn by a CMAS instructor, a CMAS Dive Leader and a participant

while conducting confined and open water rescue training consists of the prescribed diving

equipment listed in Section B under the definition of "minimum instructional diving system". It

is however acknowledged that for certain confined and open water rescue skills training it will be

impractical for the CMAS Instructor, CMAS Dive Leader and the candidates to wear the complete

prescribed "minimum instructional diving system". It is therefore permissible for the CMAS

Instructor, CMAS Dive Leader and the candidates not to wear the complete prescribed "minimum

instructional diving system" during such activities.

12.4.2 In the event that the CMAS Instructor or the training facility by whom he is employed/on

whose behalf he is presenting the training programme is providing or renting any diving

equipment to the student the CMAS Instructor shall ensure:

12.4.2.1That the diving equipment rented or provided to the student conforms to the relevant

International Standards as prescribed by legislation applicable in the country where the

training programme is being presented;

12.4.2.2 That the diving equipment rented to the student is subjected to an inspection prior

to delivery in order to ascertain that it is fully operational;

12.4.2.3 That all diving equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions, and records of maintenance, servicing and inspection is kept;

and

12.4.2.4 That the student is advised on choosing the proper diving equipment taking into

account the envisaged diving activity and the qualification and needs of the student (e.g.

the proper fit of buoyancy control devices and suits).

17

CMAS Rescue Standard

12.5 Information to be provided

12.5.1 Prior to each confined and open water training session, participants shall have the safety

provisions identified to them by the CMAS Instructor, including the following:

12.5.1.1The identity and role of any assistants or other staff;

12.5.1.2Emergency procedures;

12.5.1.3 Buddy/group assignments ; and

12.5.1.4 The conduct required of the students.

12.5.2 The following additional information shall be provided to the participants before any open water

training dive by the CMAS Instructor:

12.5.2.1 Information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of

the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions);

12.5.2.1.1 Arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size; and

12.5.2.1.2 Depth and/or time limitations.

12.6 Instructor/student ratio for practical training

12.6.1 The maximum number of students for practical training is eight (8) students per CMAS Instructor.

Two (2) additional students per certified CMAS Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of

twelve (12) students per CMAS Instructor. Although additional CMAS Dive Leaders may be used,

no additional students may be added to the responsibility of the individual CMAS Instructor.

These ratios are considered maximum and should be reduced if environmental conditions or

other factors are not optimum.

12.7 Practical knowledge application training

12.7.1 Before participating in the practical knowledge application lessons the participant shall have

demonstrated sufficient theoretical knowledge of the relevant rescue techniques.

12.7.2 Participants shall receive their initial training of each rescue skill under the direct supervision of

the CMAS Instructor. Further skill development may continue under direct supervision of a

certified CMAS Dive Leader and indirect supervision of the Instructor. The CMAS instructor shall

conduct the final assessment to determine the satisfactory skill performance of each student.

12.8 Confined water training

12.8.1 Prior to the first confined water training lesson the student shall undergo the

“Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” as prescribed by Clause 6.1.3 of

this Standard.

12.8.2 The participant shall be assessed by a CMAS Instructor and, if necessary, receive

remedial training on the skills prescribed in Clause 10.2.1 of this Standard during a

minimum of one (1) confined water lesson.

12.8.3 Participants shall receive their initial training of each rescue skill under the direct

18

CMAS Rescue Standard

supervision of the CMAS Instructor. Further skill development may continue under direct

supervision of a certified CMAS Dive Leader and indirect supervision of the Instructor.

The CMAS instructor shall conduct the final assessment to determine the satisfactory

skill performance of each student.

12.9 Open water training

12.9.1 Before participating in the open water training dives the participant shall have demonstrated

sufficient theoretical knowledge and rescue skills in confined water to be able to perform the open

water rescue dives/exercises in the prevailing conditions.

12.9.2 An open water training rescue dive/exercise shall comprise of the activities as provided for in the

definitions in Section B, Clause 1.1.19 of this Standard and shall be directly supervised by a CMAS

Instructor.

12.9.3 Participants to be certified shall complete at least two (2) open water rescue dives/exercises

under the direct supervision of a CMAS Instructor at depths between nine (9) to twenty (20)

meters. All assisted ascent exercises shall be terminated at a depth of 6 meters and shall be

directly supervised by the CMAS Instructor.

12.9.4 All rescue skills in open water shall be taught, directly supervised and evaluated by a

CMAS Instructor, who shall be in the water during each open water training dive. The CMAS

Instructor shall be in direct control of the students throughout all open water rescue training

activities.

12.9.5 All open water training dives shall be conducted during normal daylight hours.

12.9.6 No open water training dive shall be conducted in any overhead environment where direct vertical

access to the surface is not possible. Open water training dives shall therefore not be conducted

in under-water caves, inside wrecks or below ice.

12.9.7 No more than two (2) open water training dives may be conducted on a given day.

12.9.8 The safe supervision of participants is the sole responsibility of the CMAS Instructor. The CMAS

Instructor shall lower the instructor/ participant ratio as provided for in Clause 12.6 of this

Standard where environmental conditions are less than ideal, for example where underwater

visibility is poor or where there is significant water movement. The CMAS Instructor may also

use additional aids to improve safety such as ascent lines, surface support stations or

Instructional Assistants and safety swimmers. Where Instructional Assistants are used they shall

comply with the requirements as prescribed by Clause 1.1.13 of the definitions in Section B

of this Standard.

12.9.9 The CMAS Instructor shall limit the number of participants on open water rescue training

dives/exercises so that either the CMAS Instructor or a CMAS Dive Leader is able to establish

physical contact with every participant at any time during the open water dive.

12.9.10 The CMAS Instructor shall cancel or abort the open water training dive if environmental

conditions, equipment problems or a participant’s physical or mental condition make this

necessary.

13.Assessment

13.1 Knowledge

13.1.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the CMAS Instructor knowledge of rescue diving

19

CMAS Rescue Standard

principles and practices by taking and passing an oral or written examination. This

examination shall test rescue diving theoretical knowledge according to Clause 9 and

knowledge of rescue skills according to Clause 10 of this Standard.

13.2 Practical knowledge application

13.2.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the CMAS Instructor his mastery of the rescue skills,

as prescribed in Clause 10.1 of this Standard, during one or more practical knowledge

application lessons.

13.3 Confined water rescue skills

13.3.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the CMAS Instructor his mastery of the confined

water rescue skills, as prescribed in Clause 10.2 of this Standard, during one or more of the

confined water lessons.

13.4 Open water rescue skills

13.4.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the CMAS Instructor his mastery of the open water

rescue skills, as prescribed in Clause 10.3 of this Standard, during at least two (2) open

water rescue training dives/exercises.

13.4.2 Each one of the open water rescue training dives/exercises shall consist of the activities as

prescribed in Clause 1.1.19 of the definitions in Section B.

14.Instructor and Instructional Assistant requirements

15.1 This training programme may only be presented by a CMAS Instructor with a minimum of a CMAS

Two Star Instructor grading who also holds a CMAS Rescue Diver certification that complies with the

requirements as prescribed by Clause 1.1.5 of the definitions in Section B of this Standard.

15.2 The CMAS Two Star Instructor may be assisted by a CMAS One Instructor who must also hold a

CMAS Rescue Diver certification and that complies with the requirements as prescribed by Clause

1.1.7 of the definitions in Section B of this Standard or by a CMAS Dive Leader who must also hold a

CMAS Rescue Diver certification and that complies with Clause 1.1.5 of the definitions in Section B of

this Standard.

15. Certification

15.1 Upon successful completion of the training programme the participant shall be awarded with a

CMAS Rescue Diver C-card.

16. Quality Assurance

16.1 Both CMAS International and a CMAS Federation shall have the right to institute any such quality

assurance measures that they deem appropriate in order to ensure that all CMAS Rescue Diver

Training is conducted throughout the world in accordance to the minimum requirements of this

Standard.

20

CMAS Rescue Standard

21